Glossary

What is casein? What is the difference between fructose and glucose? As a sports person you'll hear this terminology frequently. Read our glossary to help improve your understanding.

Amino acids are the building blocks of the proteins we have to consume every day through food in order for our bodies to function well. There are 20 different types of amino acids that we use in our bodies. There are nine amino acids that the body cannot produce by itself which are refered to as the 'essential amino acids' as they have to be absorbed through food every day. The other amino acids are classed as non-essential, the body can produce these itself. Although non essential it is advantageous especially to the athlete or those looking for optimum health to seek out all 20 amino acids in their diet by consuming ample amounts of high quality proteins.

The three branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine are classed as essential amino acids and are the main component of the skeletal muscle besides glutamine. Leucine plays a key role as signaller for muscle protein synthesis, the process that maintains and repairs muscle. Protein supplements made of high-quality proteins contain a high BCAA proportion of approx. 22-25%.

The spicy burn experienced when eating chillis is caused by a compound in the chilli called capsaicin. Apart from providing a spicy sensation, capsaicin can also stimulate fat release from the adipose tissue – the body's fat stores – and increase the body's ability to burn fat, especially during exercise.

Milk protein consists mainly of casein and whey protein. Casein is characterised by its slow digestion and absorption rate. Compared to whey protein which is rapidly absorbed by the body, casein is slowly absorbed over several hours. This makes it especially suitable for use before going to sleep in order to ensure that the body has a constant supply of amino acids overnight. It can also help to maintain satiety, suppressing hunger, therefore making a great choice for between meals and especially useful in weight loss phases.

Proteins are among the essential nutrients with 20 different amino acids forming their basic structure.  Protein has a huge range of physiological functions that are important for physical performance and health. They are the basis for the structure of the muscles, connective tissue, enzymes and hormones. They can also be used as a source of energy under load. As the body cannot store protein, a steady supply of protein is essential. In order to provide optimal assistance in muscle gain, for example, a protein uptake of 2g protein per kilogram body weight each day is recommended. Animal products such as meat, fish and dairy products can be used as sources of protein, as well as plant-based products such as pulses and soy products. Proteins can be isolated from animal and plant-based foods, for example from milk or soy. These proteins are available in powdered form. As a delicious shake, the powders not only provide easy to prepare and consume high-quality protein, but are also still very low in fat and calories.

Fats are important providers of energy and components for different cells and are an essential part of our diet.  When we eat high quality fat containing foods we  consume a variety of fats including the essentail fats omega 3 and 6, as well taking in the fat-soluble vitamins (E, D, K, A).

Fats are a necessary part of our diet but they are calorie dense and emphasis should be placed upon consuming high quality fats from minimally processed foods.

Fructose is a monosaccharide that occurs in fruit and honey. In the human intestine, fructose is absorbed more slowly than glucose and thus provides longer-lasting energy. A combination of glucose and fructose in sports drinks increases energy supply during exercise and provides more of a sustained energy supply.

Glucose (also known as dextrose) is a monosaccharide meaning a single sugar ('mono': single). All the carbohydrates provided are ultimately converted into glucose in the body and used to generate energy.

Glutamine is one of the conditionally essential amino acids, as it is often not sufficiently produced in a body under stress such as exercise. Of all amino acids, glutamine has the highest concentration in the muscle and plays an important role when training loads or exercise intensity are high. Glutamine is important in the production of immune cells and thus improves the immune system function.

The minimal amount of energy required to maintain all vital functions of the body. The energy consumption for physical activity is not yet included and has to be added. This then results in the total energy expenditure.

Guarana has the stimulating effect of coffee. Unlike the caffeine contained in coffee , however, the stimulating substance has a delayed release. The effect therefore also lasts longer, thereby ensuring a more sustained energy kick.

Hypertrophy is the increase in muscle size as a result of muscle fibre thickening. The process is triggered by strength training and assisted by the intake of protein and other nutrients

After successful weight reduction, there is the eternal question of how to prevent renewed weight gain - the yo-yo effect. The yo-yo effect occurs if phases with a severely restricted energy intake (weight reduction diet) are directly followed by a normal diet. Then the basal metabolic rate (that has been lowered as a result of the "starvation" metabolism) has no time to adapt and body weight increases again abruptly.

Caffeine occurs naturally in various types of plants such as coffee, tea, mate, guarana and cocoa. It has a stimulating effect on the sympathetic nervous system and increases lipolysis in fatty tissue by increasing the adrenaline level. Caffeine from Multipower products reaches the maximum blood concentration after approx. 20-60 minutes and increases concentration and performance.

Carbohydrate is an important energy source and the primary fuel used in higher intensity training sessions and sports. The brain and nervous system also uses carbohydrate exclusively and if the supply runs low, concentration, reactions and coordination suffer. Carbohydrates are mostly contained in plant-based foods such as fruit, vegetables, rice, cereals and processed cereal products such as bread, pasta, muesli, etc.

Maltodextrin is made up of multiple glucose molecules and provides energy in a fast and sustained manner. In recovery products and isotonic drinks, maltodextrin is used because of its good tolerability and fast energy provision.

Minerals are also classed as vital food components. They regulate the water balance, bone metabolism, vascular tone, nerve function and muscle contraction and are involved in many other basic cellular functions.

Palatinose® is a functional carbohydrate with the generic name isomaltulose. It is obtained from sugar-beet. Isomaltulose is the only low-glycemic, tooth-friendly carbohydrate with long-lasting energy supply in the form of glucose.  We use it in bars and gels in order to assist performance.

Peptides consist of amino acid chains. Two amino acids that are linked to each other are called a dipeptide, three amino acids result in a tripeptide and an entire sequence of chained amino acids is called a polypeptide, also known as a protein. All proteins that we consume daily are polypeptides and first have to be broken down by our bodies into individual amino acids before they are available.

PeptoPro® is a peptide based on natural milk protein that consists of chain amino acids. In contrast to conventional proteins, PeptoPro® is a very short amino acid chain made up of only two to three peptides. The main advantage of PeptoPro® is the speed of absorbtion. As the protein has already been broken up into smaller peptides the body does not need to spend time and energy breaking them down further meaning that they're absorbed into the blood extremely quickly and efficiently. This in turn leads to a rapid rise in blood amino acids levels which acts as a signal to the body to start working on muscle tissue repair and growth. PeptoPro® is the perfect protein for the period around training, either during or directly after. The ease of absorbtion and the lack of need for digestion makes it easy on the stomach and very effective at accelerating recovery at a time then the body is primed to absorb nutrients into the muscle tissues. PeptoPro® also comes in fresh non dairy flavours increasing the palitability whilst training.

If a muscle is subjected to stress through exercise, the actual muscle gain occurs in the recovery phase. An optimal exercise effect is, however, only achieved if the muscle can recover sufficiently. This requires adequate periods of rest. Furthermore the body must be replenished with the main nutrients and building blocks such as protein. The exercise stress suggests a physical limitation or deficiency in the body which it aims to avoid during the next session. The body reacts to the stress by building up the muscle beyond its original level. This process is called supercompensation.

Vitamins are vital micronutrients, which the body does not produce or does not produce enough of. Vitamins are divided into 2 groups according to their solubility. Vitamin C and B vitamins belong to the group of water-soluble vitamins. The fat-soluble vitamins E, D, K and A can only be absorbed fully if some fat is added.

Milk protein consists mainly of casein and whey protein. The protein content of the whey can be concentrated using different filtering processes which allow it to be sold as a very high-quality supplement. Whey protein provides a great amino acid profile with a high level of branch chain amino acids, and is ideal in assisting in muscle gain and maintenance.

Creatine plays an important role in energy metabolism. It occurs naturally in the body where it is synthesised in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids Arginine, Glycine and Methionine. Or you can add it to your daily diet in the form of a supplement. It boosts energy levels so that you can work out for longer and more intensively. It also supports the production of muscle tissue, increases muscle cell volume and can have a positive effect on mental performance. Creatine is responsible in the brain and nerve cells for coordination of movement, learning and memory.

Vcaps® are capsules made of Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC) or  Hypromellose for short. They are wholly plant-based, which makes them ideal for vegetarians as they do not contain any animal substances such as gelatine.

Clarinol contains CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) and is currently the best quality source of CLA on the market. CLA inhibits fat storage in the body’s fat cells. When taken in conjunction with regular exercise, CLA supports fat metabolisation in the mitochondria (the powerhouses of cells) and the build-up of lean body mass.

Capsimax capsules contain high-quality Capsicum extract of chilli. Capsaicin, the main capsaicinoid in chilli peppers, improves the metabolism and increases the rate at which calories and fat are burnt.

Licaps are special capsules which allow fresh liquid natural ingredients to be sealed in hard gelatin capsule. Licaps do not contain starch, gluten, additives or preservatives and they allow their contents to be absorbed into the body more readily.

Creapure is registered trademark and quality guarantee for high-quality Creatine Monohydrate used by the German company AlzChem Trostberg GmbH. Creatine products carrying this logo guarantee 100% quality and purity and a minimal creatinin content (<100ppm). When buying creatine supplements look for the Creapure logo.